Mehmed the Conqueror Siege of Mytilene 1462

The island of Lisbos was conquered by the Ottomans in September 1462 AD. Ottoman forces under the leadership of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror and his vizier Mahmud Pasha laid siege to the city of Mytilene in Lesbos and conquered it. After the conquest of Mytilene, all the forts and cities of the island surrendered to the Ottomans.

During the Middle Ages, the island of Lesbos was part of the Byzantine Empire. In the 1990s the island was occupied for a time by Zakas Bay, the first affluent of Smyrna. In the twelfth century AD, when the fleets of the Republic of Venice entered the waters of the Aegean Sea, they attacked and plundered the island several times.

Mehmed the Conqueror

After the Fourth Crusade in 1244 AD, the island went to the Latin Empire, but after 1224 AD, the Empire of Nicaea conquered it again. After the capture of the island, the island was given as a fiefdom to Francisco I Jatilussi. Jatilus was a powerful Genoese family who ruled over Lesbos and occupied some areas of Fuqua, Anatolia, and Thrace.

When the Ottoman Sultan Muhammad II conquered Constantinople and ended the Byzantine Empire in 1453 AD, the Jatilusians also occupied the island of Lemnos, but after the conquest of Constantinople, the period of the rise of the Ottoman Empire had also begun. Muhammad II, who was called a weak and fanatical prince by European rulers, conquered Constantinople in 1453 AD and began his series of historic victories that ended with his death in 1481 AD.

Ottoman Expansion in the Aegean

But by that time the Ottoman fleet had reached the shores of Italy and the Ottomans had also conquered the Italian city of Otranto. After conquering Constantinople, Sultan Muhammad II turned his attention to the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea in addition to Europe. and demanded tribute from the rulers of Lisbos and Limnos, as well as the rest of the Aegean islands. In 1455 AD, the Ottoman fleet under the leadership of Hamza Bey entered the eastern waters of the Aegean Sea.

Domenico, ruler of the island of Lesbos, sent his Greek ambassador Doukas to Hamza Bey with valuable gifts and accepted the tribute of the Ottomans. But after that he sent his ambassador Dakkas to Sultan Muhammad II to Constantinople to pay the annual tribute. So Sultan Muhammad II ordered Domenico to appear before the Sultan himself. Domenico appeared before the sultan and in addition to paying an annual tribute of four thousand gold coins, also handed over the island of Thasos to the Ottomans.

Diplomatic Efforts and Revolts

In 1456 CE, Sultan Muhammad II also took Ainos away from Domenico’s cousin Dorino II. At the same time, the Ottoman Emir al-Bahr Yunus Pasha also conquered the islands of Ambrose and Samothrace. In the spring of the same year, the local population of the island of Limnos revolted against Domenico’s younger brother Niccolo. and sought help from the Ottomans. Because of which, in the spring of 1456 AD, the island of Lemnos was also taken over by the Ottomans.

Sultan Muhammad had strengthened his hold in the Aegean Sea. and no longer felt threatened by the Christian states of the Aegean Sea. So they turned their attention to Serbia and Hungary. When Sultan Muhammad II was engaged in wars with Hungary and Serbia. Meanwhile, in 1456 AD, the papal fleet led by Ludo Vico Travessan attacked and captured the islands of Limnos, Thasos, and Samothrace.

Ottoman Siege of Lesbos (1457 AD)

Dominico, the ruler of Lesbos, had no hand in these attacks, but Sultan Muhammad II sent his fleet to attack Lesbos in 1457 AD because Dominico was supporting the papal fleet. The fleet laid siege to the city of Mythmina in Lesbos, but Domenico, with the help of Ludo Vico Travestan’s fleet, defeated the Ottomans.

In 1458 AD, Domenico’s younger brother Niccolo killed him and captured Lisbos. One of the reasons for Sultan Muhammad II to attack Lisbos was that Niccolo killed his brother Domenico, a rival of the Ottomans. In addition, attacks by Catalan pirates in the Aegean Sea continued to increase when Domenico accepted the repatriation of Sultan Muhammad II.

So he also accepted the responsibility that he would stop the attacks of the Catalan pirates. But instead of paying attention to this, Domenico’s younger brother, the new ruler of Lesbos, was harboring these pirates.

Niccolo’s Defensive Preparations

Therefore, Sultan Muhammad II, after further improving his naval power, defeated and re-conquered the islands of Lemnos, Thasos and Samothis in 1469 AD. After the conquest of Morea in 1460 and Trabzon in 1461 AD, Sultan Muhammad II turned to Lisbos. The new ruler of Lisbos, Niccolo, was already sensing the threat of an invasion of Lisbos by the Ottomans. So Niccolò paid particular attention to collecting grain in all the castles of Lesbos and repairing their walls.

Niccolo made the strong fort of Maitlini his headquarters. And started to strengthen it. And also collected enough food in the fort. so that In case of siege, the fort can be defended for a long time. Niccolò sought help from many Christian states, including Pope Rome, but he could not get any help. Even the Genoese ruler of his neighboring island of Chios refused to help him.

Ottoman Arrival and Niccolo’s Inquiry

This was because these islands in the Aegean Sea were in the possession of various powerful Genoese dynasties. The political rivalries between these powerful dynasties led to the refusal of the Genoese ruler of Chios to help him. In addition to the army advancing towards. European historians have written the number of the Ottoman army as forty thousand and the number of small and large ships up to two hundred. When they arrived, Niccolo, the ruler of Lisbos, sent a messenger to find out the reason for their arrival here

Mahmud Pasha demanded Niccolo to surrender, but Niccolo flatly refused, so Pasha disembarked his army from ships and began raiding the surrounding areas, but most of the population there had already died before the arrival of the Ottomans. So the Ottomans went ahead and besieged Mytilene. On the fourth day of the siege, Sultan Muhammad II also reached the island of Lisbos with his army, but Mahmud Pasha told the Sultan to go back to Anatolia and Mytilene. leave the victory to me, so Sultan Muhammad II returned to Anatolia.

Ottoman Siege and Heavy Shelling

The Greek Rakhdokas wrote that the number of defenders defending Metilini was 5,000, including Crusader knights and a number of Catalan pirates. I was near the island of Chios and Niccolò hoped to come to his aid, but the Republic of Venice had strictly ordered its fleet not to make any move that might lead to war with the Ottomans. Let go. Vitorcapello, the commander of the fleet of the Republic of Venice, therefore refrained from aiding Niccolò.

On the other hand, after the return of Sultan Muhammad II, Mahmud Pasha started shelling the fort. Ten days of heavy shelling caused severe damage to the walls of the fort. And one tower of the fort was also broken. The Ottoman army advanced and hoisted its flag on this tower, but the Ottoman army failed to enter the fort. The defenders of the fort pushed the Ottoman army back and started repairing the walls of the fort again. After that, the Ottomans started a heavy attack on the lower part of the fort.

The fortress was defended by Niccolo Jatilusio’s cousin Luchino Jatilusio. Luchino Jatilusio resisted the Ottoman army for five days. But on the sixth day, the Ottoman army entered the fort through a powerful attack. The attack was so intense that Luchino Jatilusio could barely escape with his life. But many of his soldiers were killed in this attack and many local people were also killed in this battle.

Legacy of the Ottoman Empire

After capturing the lower part of the fortress, Mahmud Pasha once again offered Niccolo Jatilusio to surrender. It was already easy enough that Niccolò Jatilusio demanded an equal fief in exchange for Lisbos and said that he would surrender to him if the sultan himself would come here.

Mahmud Pasha therefore sent a messenger to the Sultan and informed him of Niccolò Jatilusio’s demands. The next day, Sultan Mehmed II also returned to the island and Niccolò Jatilusio surrendered. The cities surrendered and thus the island of Lesbos became part of the Ottoman Empire. For the next four and a half centuries, the island of Lisbos was a part of the Ottoman Empire.

Battle of Otranto 1480 Chaldiran 1514
Battle of Otranto 1480 Chaldiran 1514
Khalid bin Waleed Battle of Sanita-al-Uqab 634 AD
Khalid bin Waleed Battle of Sanita-al-Uqab 634 AD

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *