Battle of Otranto 1480 Chaldiran 1514

Battle of Otranto 1480 Chaldiran 1514. with the death of Squander Beg Venice took over the defenses of a large portion of the Balkan coast this was a continuation of the Ottoman Venetian war of 1463 to 1479 and by the end of it the Republic was exhausted and was forced to sign the Treaty of Constantinople Mehmet ii received you bow iya Lemnos and most of Albania the conflict with the prince of Moldavia Stefan.

The third was also winding down so the Ottomans were able to concentrate their forces against the kingdom of Hungary which at this point was ruled by Matias the First and was arguably one of the strongest kingdoms in Europe with the legendary black army defending it several raids were conducted into Transylvania via Villar kia in this period eventually Matias gave the voivode of Transylvania death in the 5th Batory enough forces and the latter matched.

The Ottoman raiding troops at the Battle of Bread Field on the 13th of October 1479. the Ottomans under Ali Kocha Bay and the Prince of Wallachia Bazarov the Fourth had between 10 and 20,000 troops mostly Akan GLI traders while Stefan V commanded around 15,000 Hungarians Sheckler’s Transylvanian Saxons and Serbs on both sides divided their troops into three groups initially the Ottoman Empire right and center pushed their counterparts the situation became even more critical for the Hungarian forces.

Ottoman Empire

When Stefan fell from his horse and was almost captured only saved by one of his knights at the last moment the ottoman leaders usually stayed behind the center in order to observe the battlefield but Ali Koja Bey commanded the left flank and fought in the front lines which prevented him from judging the tactical situation famous Hungarian general Powell Konishi was commanding Stefan’s right flank he managed to lure the Ottoman left away from the center and fen rapidly attacked.

He dispersed his cavalry then attacked the Ottoman Center and soon the whole Ottoman Empire army was in retreat according to different sources between five and ten thousand warriors of the Sultan were killed while the Hungarians lost less than three thousand as the Ottomans often used their border vassals in these smaller attacks Hungary got some respite due to the victory at bread field Sultan Mehmet’s now set his sights on strengthening his position in the Mediterranean.

Battle of Otranto

On conquering Italy according to some sources Rome was his goal ever since he took Constantinople the disunity in Italy was promising and the newly acquired Albanian lands were a good springboard the peace with Venice also helped as the Ottoman Navy didn’t need to contend with its formidable Navy anymore in May of 1480 the Ottoman Empire launched an invasion of roads but the Knights Hospitaller managed to repel the assault by August.

Despite the overwhelming Ottoman numbers at the same time the invasion of Italy had begun in July of 1480 a 20,000-strong Ottoman army under Get ‘ok amid Pasha set sail for the kingdom of Naples making landfall near Toronto the garrison initially considered it to be a smaller raid and sallied out as more Ottoman troops landed on the shores the defenders were pushed back and forced to return to the city.

battle of Chaldiran

The Ottoman commander sent a messenger demanding that the city surrender and convert to Islam the citizens and the garrison which had around 2,000 soldiers declined and managed to send messengers asking for help meanwhile the Ottoman cannons were disembarked from the ships on the 29th of July the ottomans surrounded the city and their cannons started bombarding the walls as the garrison was too small to defend the outer walls it moved to the citadel the ottomans quickly took the city looting.

Burning as they did their cannons were moved to destroy the walls of the citadel the siege continued for 15 days on the 11th of August the Ottoman artillery breached the northeastern wall and their troops entered the citadel the garrison alongside 10,000 citizens were massacred and Thousands were enslaved according to the sources 800 men were left alive and the Ottoman Empire tried to forcibly convert them to Islam but they refused and were beheaded these 800 became martyrs.

Mamluks in Egypt

And their death became a banner uniting the Christian forces the ottomans then raided the cities of Lecce Taranto Brindisi and Viesta most of their troops returned to Albania leaving 1500 as a garrison in Toronto the kingdoms of Naples Sicily and Hungary besieged the city in May of 1481 as Sultan Mehmed died on the 3rd of May and with him the plan to take Italy no help arrived for the garrison and in August it surrendered Mehmed’s didn’t name a successor so his sons bayazid.

And Jem raced to the capital to capture the throne the former was quicker and was declared Sultan Bayezid the second on May 21st Jen captured the cities in Anatolia and defeated Bay and its forces on May 28th he declared himself the Sultan and offered to BAE it that they divided the empire the latter refused consolidated his forces and moved against Jem himself this time defeating his brother Atia Nisha here Jen fled to the Mamluks in Egypt then to the hospitalist.

The Ottoman Sultans

And ended up in the court of Pope Innocent to the 8th who was willing to use the Ottoman Prince as a bargaining chip against BAE the new Sultan continued the Ottoman Empire military conquests smaller raids were used to loot the areas on the borders or to punish rebellious vassals one of the targets of the raids was the kingdom of Croatia which was in dynastic union with Hungary. in 1491 such a raid ended up in a Croatian victory.

At the Battle of Verbal in 1493 the Ottoman ruler in Bosnia Adeem Jakob Pasha made another raid into Croatia and the locals raised their forces to meet him aCabezaza both sides had around 10,000 troops but while the Ottoman army was made up of cavalry the Croatians fielded a mix of infantry and cavalry initially the Croatian forces occupied steep hills and the Ottoman leader knew that he couldn’t win a battle attacking uphill he sent three thousand horsemen to set an ambush to the right of these hills.

Seljuk Empire

While 3,000 stayed to the left the rest moved against the Croatians after the initial attack the ottoman started retreating and the Croatians pursued them descending into more open terrain the main Ottoman forces re-engaged them while v2 hidden groups attacked them from the right and rear soon the Croatian left retreated and was crushed the center and the right were pushed back and then surrounded almost the entire Croatian army was massacred while the ottomans lost only a few hundred.

During this period the Ottomans renewed hostilities with Venice and started their wars against Poland Moldavia became an Ottoman vassal while the Venetians were forced to give up their holdings on the Peloponnese after several naval engagements meanwhile the main threat for the Ottomans was rising in the east iIranan the Seljuk Mongol and then thTimuridid invasions changed the balance of power in the region as more Turkic and Turkish ice tribes were settling here in their wake.

Battle of Augsburg

By 1500 Iran-Iraq and most of the caucuses were under the control of the actual Young Loot dynasty which challenged Mehmet II in 1476 during the Battle of Augsburg and barely defeated the equation Lu had not been trying to expand to the West more internal strife was weakening their realm and in 1501 a member of the Safavid dynasty Ismail the first supported by a number of Turkmen tribes occupied to breathe and declared himself Shah.

In 1503 he defeated the last act on you Lu Sultan and soon he was in control of a vast empire his mail and his dynasty belonged to the Shia branch of Islam and that put him on a collision course with the Sun I’d Ottomans thus hadad decided to test his Ottoman Empire and man look neighbors by attackindhoklaka deer which was under their protection in 1507 neither state responded but the Ottoman Prince Salim retaliated by raiding Safavid territory adjacent to the area he governed.

Knight Leader Mohammed Shabani

At the same time they as it asks another sir Knight leader Mohammed Shabani to attack the Safavids the latter obliged and moved against fair holdings in Central Asia in 1510 his mail moved swiftly attacked Chobani at Merve and defeated and killed him with ease despite having inferior numbers the shower would reciprocate in kind and his Shia supporters rebelled against the Ottoman rule in Anatolia in 1511 although this rebellion was defeated quickly it was just the start as many Turkmen tribes in eastern Anatolia were sheer.

At the same time the Ottoman Empire was facing another succession the ailing Sultan declared his older son Ahmed as heir apparent in 1511 his younger son Salim rebelled and despite initial setbacks took Istanbul in the April of 1512 and dethroned his father soon Emmet’s army was defeated and sell in the first became the Ottoman Sultan he still faced an increasing number of Shia Muslims in his realm Salim would use the religion against the supporters of Ismail and his scholars soon declared the Shia to be heretics the rulers wrote each other a number of letters full of insults.

Sultan Selim

In 1512 Salim ordered the execution of more than 40,000 Shia in Anatolia and also sent a letter to the shaper to request another invasion of the Safavid Ralf all that made war inevitable was his mail was forced to send a portion of his troops east to face the Schaben ‘it’s in 1514 Salim started his campaign against his mail the Ottomans had around seventy thousand troops and more than 100 cannons while Ismail could feel fifty thousand most of them cavalry.

He had no artillery initially the Safavid Shah used scorched earth tactics to weaken Salim’s forces but as the armies were moving within Iran and close to the south of its capital of Tabriz now needed to make a stand and in August he decided to do that at the valley of child Iran according to some sources his mails advisors suggest is attacking after dark to prevent the Ottomans from using their artillery but the char considered himself a knight and declined the sources for the battle are extremely conflicted.

The Ottoman Empire Army

So we will just present one of the depictions Selim sent his Janissaries forward keeping the rest of his troops back and sure that his elite troops would be able to use their gunpowder weapons to disperse the enemy cavalry yet the Safavid cavalry led by Ishmael himself managed to repulse the Janissaries the Ottoman Empire Sultan then moved his super his forward to cover the retreat of the Janissaries but the safaris were also driven back.

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At this point in the battle both groups returned to their initial positions his mail ordered his cavalry to divide into two columns and attack the extreme flanks of the Ottoman cavalry Safavid troops both on the left and the right flank were successful and inflicted heavy damage on the Ottoman cavalry they were then commanded to converge on the Ottoman center yet Selim who observed the battle from a nearby hill was expecting that his Hannon’s were now positioned at an angle targeting the impending cavalry attack thousands of Safavid horsemen died under artillery volleys.

Their army was forced to retreat the Ottoman Empire cavalry counter-attacked and dispersed the remaining enemy forces once again we don’t know the exact numbers but both sides suffered heavy losses in early September Selin entered Tabriz but his troops were on the verge of mutiny and soon he was forced to retreat the Ottomans took control of eastern Anatolia parts of the Caucasus and Mesopotamia yet the wars between these states were far from over.

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Battle of Kosovo 1389 - Rise of Ottoman Empire
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