Battle of Maritsa 1371 End of the Serbian Empire

Battle of Maritsa 1371 End of the Serbian Empire. By 1357 the Ottoman Baelic under the military leadership of Orhangazi’s son Suleiman Pasha had managed to create a Bridgehead into Europe with the territorial acquisition of the Gallipoli peninsula as Thrace was opened to Ottoman raiders and Ottoman families continued settling in the newly captured regions in Europe the presumptive heir of the balik would also begin the peaceful annexation of Anatolian towns like Ankara.

And bolu with the help of the local ahis religious order the same order that Osman had Allied during the days with the Kai tribe however the same year would also see the 12-year shizada Halil or Han’s son throw his marriage to the Byzantine Royal Theodora Canticoseni being captured by genuine’s Pirates during a raid on ottoman territory pleading for the return of his son the elderly and desperate Orhan went so far as to request the help of the newly established Byzantine emperor.

John V playa logos in the following negotiations with the Pirates in an actor of classic Byzantine diplomacy the emperor agrees to help the Ottoman Empire leader retrieve back his son from the Genoese in return for declaring the half-Byzantine Prince as heir to the Ottoman Gaelic paying half of the ransom requested by the Pirates revoking the ottoman alliance with the paleo logos rivaled cantokozenos family canceling all of Constantinople’s debts to Bursa accumulated during the latest Civil War.

Ottoman Territory

And lastly, the cessation of all Ottoman raids into Byzantine territories or hand would reluctantly agree to John’s terms, and all Ottoman conquests in Thrace were put on hold while the Byzantines negotiated with the Genoese after two years of negotiations Hallel would be released, and be first transported back to Constantinople where the ottoman Byzantine Prince would wed the emperor’s ten-year-olds daughter before being shipped off to Ottoman territory.

The whole crisis would highlight John V’s answer to Ottoman aggression by planting the seeds for a Byzantine Royal to inherit Ottoman territories and even potentially transforming the Balic into a fellow Christian Ally foreign ‘s plans for the Ottoman Empire would move further forward when Orhan’s eldest son and assumed Heir Suleiman Pasha unexpectedly died during a Hunting Expedition in 1359. going into grief for his son and Heir the now physically ill Ohhangazi would appoint his 33-year-old son.

Shazada Murad oversaw the Ottoman armies stationed in threes before secluding himself within the walls of the Ottoman Palace in Bursa however like his brother before him Murad would also ignore the established agreements between Constantinople and Bursa and began planning for a future military campaign to seize the major Byzantine city of Adrian Opel after three years of being inactive ottoman armies in Thrace would begin military operations in the region in a two-pronged invasion the upcoming military campaign would be led by three ottoman commanders all appointed.

History of Sultan Murad

By Murad personally Hachi ilbe and gassy of Renos Bay the latter two being former charismatic commanders the Ottoman Empire Prince would first a sign of Renault’s Bay and his forces alongside the Thracian Aegean Sea Coast to prevent Christian reinforcements from entering the region from the West while he would take the bulk of the Ottoman Army into Byzantine territory up north during the beginning of 1360 the ottoman military campaign would begin.

This would see Murad swiftly capturing the towns of Lula Burgess Babeski and Koklarelli reaching the Black Sea Coast thus territorially cutting off Constantinople from the rest of Europe that following year events Bay would capture the military Strategic Fortress town as Panic arose in Constantinople caused by the sudden Ottoman Empire Invasion John V would form a new joint Byzantine Bulgarian force in the west to counter-attack.

The Ottomans in Thrace, however, the Coalition forces would be dispersed by Murad during the subsequent Battle of Pinahisar and be pushed back behind the walls of Adrian Opal consolidating all of his forces in the region Murad would begin his much-awaited Siege on Adrian Opel during the summer of 1361 and before long the local Byzantine in the spring of 1362 the secluded 80-year-old orhangazi would die from natural causes his final words to his son Murad.

Reign of Orhan Gazi

Were son I’ve reached the end of my road while you are just starting on yours may God the almighty bless your reign Orhan Gazi would be buried in the Ottoman capital city of Bursa the city that he had conquered 36 years ago being renowned as the greatest and wealthiest of the Turkomen rulers of Anatolia by the famous 14th century Muslim scholar and traveler IBN batuta orhangazi’s greatest Legacy would be transforming the ottoman balic into a military power on par with the Byzantine Empire.

And for expanding the state into Europe receiving the news of the death of his father while in Thrace Murad would start his journey back to the capital city of Bursa to secure the Ottoman throne upon arriving in the city the young shazada would be proclaimed as Sultan by the Statesman and the religious element of the capital meanwhile in Anatolia the news of orphan’s death had brought a period of uncertainty in the region as the ottoman Garrison.

At Ankara was expelled by the local officials of the city and the sons of the former Ottoman ruler Shizada Ibrahim and Halil revolted against Murad’s Swift Caesar of the Ottoman throne after hearing of the troubling developments from his Anatolian province in a quick and successful military campaign during the same year Murad would re-establish Ottoman Empire rule in Ankara and defeat and execute his two half-brothers marking the event as the first ottoman fratricide in history.

Ottoman Empire

After stabilizing his Anatolian Holdings Murad made plans for another military campaign this time directed at Europe as local Ottoman forces in Europe regrouped at the town of Didimoteko another two-pronged attack into Thrace was being planned by the new Ottoman leader Cassie Afrenos Bay would take his contingent of the Ottoman Army and head West hugging the Aegean Sea while Lala shahin Pasha would take his forces up north towards the rope mountain range.

And descending into the Maritza Valley the Ottoman Empire military offensive started strong with a friend bay capturing the city of Komatini and Lahashahin Pasha capturing Stara Zagora before going on to besiege Plovdiv one of the largest cities within the Bulgarian Empire after a long Siege in 1364 the city would fall to the forces of la shahin Pasha and would thus serve as a major military base for the Ottomans.

In the region as cities in Thrace collapsed like dominoes Murad would further order another Mass migration of Ottoman families from Anatolia to resettle in the newly conquered lands in Europe after the Black Death many cities in the Balkans were heavily depopulated this made it easier for the Ottomans who were only lightly scarred by the pandemic to conquer and settle in the Balkans throughout the decade with the death of zeta halil.

Byzantine Empire

And the Ottoman conquest of Thrace an official peace treaty was signed between the Ottomans and a now rump Byzantine Empire in 1364 which would result in John V recognizing Murad’s Conquest in the region and promising to refrain from forming an anti-ottoman Coalition with other European powers although there is a lack of European sources on the matter according to traditional Ottoman Empire Chronicles during the same year the peace treaty was signed.

A European Crusade was launched by rulers of Hungary Serbia Bosnia and Volacia against Murad marching on Adrian Opal which was by then slowly being transformed into a new ottoman Capital City the goal of the Crusade was to thwart further Muslim expansion into the Balkans and to possibly even push the Ottomans back across the Dardanelles into Anatolia however in a series of shrouded events the Crusader Army would be repulsed by the Ottoman forces of Hachi Bay near the walls of Adrian opal.

During the Battle of Sip Sunday or Serbian destruction which would see a 10 000 strong Ottoman force defeating a far larger European host the decisive Ottoman victory would help ensure a permanent Ottoman presence in the Balkans for another decade and would also Mark the first time the Ottomans would fight against an invading Crusader Army in their history as ottoman victories against European powers mounted another Crusade was launched against Murad in 1366.

Battle of Maritsa

This time under the leadership of the Count of Savoy Amadeus IV in a short military campaign between 1366 and 1367 Savard forces proved far more successful compared to their Balkan counterparts having recaptured the Gallipoli Peninsula for the Byzantines before proceeding to raid the Bulgarian Black Sea coastline with the Byzantine emperor.

Openly working with the Crusaders and traveling to Hungary and Rome for Military Support against the Ottomans Murad would renew his war with both Constantinople and the Bulgarians during the year 1368 the Bulgarian towns of Yambal Burgess Samakov and Sliven were quickly captured by the Ottoman Empire forces and Byzantine lands were once again thoroughly raided seeing that European assistance was not forthcoming John V would send his son Manuel to Adrian Oppel.

Now renamed Ederna to plead with Murad and re-establish peace the desperate Byzantine emperor was thankfully granted peace once again re-established Murad first could now focus on domestic issues such as integrating his newly conquered territories into the sultanate like with prior Muslim states the Ottoman sultanate followed a traditional policy of Tolerance towards the peoples of the book ego Christians.

Kandali Halil Pasha

And Jews had the right to protection of their lives properties and religions as long as they accepted Muslim Rule and paid these special head tax called the jizya instead of Performing military service although Mass conversion was prohibited due to the Ottoman desire to retain the vizier as a major source of income some sections of the Balkan nobility would convert to Islam during the reign of Mirage the first to gain the full benefits of Ottoman Empire rule.

Perhaps the most major domestic development to come out during the reign of Murad the first would be the introduction of the Janissary Military Corps into the Ottoman military after the conquests of the last decade the Ottoman state and its gaze soldiers had acquired considerable plunder including the acquisition of many Christian male prisoners of War during the reign of Murad the ottoman State instituted attacks of one-fifth on all slaves taken in war.

It was from this pool of Manpower that Murad first constructed the elite janissary military Corps with the help of his grand vizier Kandali Halil Pasha the Elder the Sultan’s first household troops were formed thus creating the first standing Elite military Corps in the Ottoman Empire history in the next few decades the div Shimmer also known as the blood tax would be fully institutionalized within the ottoman state which would see the Recruitment.

Serbia and Emperor Stefan Urosh

And training of young Christian peasant boys into various roles within the central Ottoman administration and Military by the time of Murad’s conquests in the Balkans the two other major powers of the region the empires of Bulgaria and Serbia were in the slow process of decentralization and economic stagnation during the first half of the 14th century both States had taken advantage of the rapid loss of Byzantine power in the Balkans by annexing large swaths of Byzantine lands in the region.

While the Byzantine world was crumbling Serbia and Emperor Stefan Urosh IV would reach its territorial political economic and cultural Peak thereby ushering in a mini Serbian golden age it was during this period the Serbian Emperor would openly contest and undermine Byzantine Authority in the region by proclaiming himself as the emperor of the Serbs and Greeks thereby declaring himself to be the true inheritor of the Roman Legacy.

In addition to propping up the Serbian patriarchal church as the head of Eastern Orthodoxy however, in 1355 the benevolent and ambitious ruler of Serbia would suddenly die leaving his newly constructed Empire to his son stefanorosh V lacking the political and martial skills of his father and often being indecisive in his ruling urush V would be unable to keep the Serbian nobility under his control for most of his reign.

The Serbian Nobles

By 1365 the most powerful of the Serbian Nobles had considerable influence over Urush and was even given the Lesser title of king of Serbia and effectively ruled over the weak emperor meanwhile Bulgaria andazar Ivan Alexander would also go through a period of decentralization which would see the empire being split into three separate entities all ruled by semi-autonomous Bulgarian princes in the wake of uniting the realm under his Rule and seeking to get revenge for the Battle of serpsinder King.

Vikasin Manjevtovic at the head of a 50,000-strong force alongside much of the Serbian nobility would invade the Ottoman Baelic during the late summer of 1371. stationed in a dinner and hearing the news of an incoming Crusader Invasion from the Balkans la Shahin Pasha would send out letters to Murad who was in Bursa with most of the Ottoman Army to send military reinforcements to Thrace at once while Ghazi of Renos Bay was gathering.

The remaining Ottoman forces in Thrace put up minor resistance against the Crusaders as the Crusader Army reached the outskirts of the Ottoman Capital the military decision to Halt and encamp near the river Maritza was taken by the Serbian nobility according to Ottoman Empire chronicles the Crusader Army had begun to Feast at night leaving their encampment unprotected.

Serbian Empire

The Serbian nobility did not believe a major Ottoman Army was in the region since most of the Ottoman Army had been recalled to Anatolia months before by Murad with the element of surprise on his side gaze afros bay and his 800-strong scouting retinue would ambush the Crusader camp in the middle of the night alongside Lala shahin pass Garrison forces from Adena thousands of Serbians were killed in their tents.

Many drowned in the nearby Maritza as a large-scale panic engulfed the Serbian Camp caused by Evanos’s sudden night raid Serbian king Fukusen Vanyavtovic and the bulk of the Serbian nobility would two be slaughtered in the pursuing Mayhem which would see the destruction of the Crusader Army only by the time the sun was up the following morning it became evident to ottoman leaders that they had won a major victory.

According to Balkan Chronicles, the Maritza was polluted with thousands of bodies and the river ran Scarlet with the blood of those killed during the battle for weeks the Ottoman victory during the Battle of Maritza also known as the Battle of Chanaumen would firmly secure the Ottoman presence in the Balkans the battle would also Mark the beginning of the end of the Serbian Empire as the childless Stefan rush V would die during the following winter leaving.

Serbian Breakaway

What remained of the Serbian nobility to establish their deposits in the former Imperial lands of the emperor hearing the news of the Crusade against him and the victory at the Maritza Murad the first and the bulk of the Ottoman Army would swiftly travel back into Thrace where the ottoman Sultan would once again make plans to swiftly travel back to his European Holdings and conduct another major military campaign in the Balkans after the collapse of the Serbian Empire.

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During the year 1372 ottoman armies would begin the campaign by marching into Serbian-held Macedonia alongside the Aegean Coast Conquering the cities of Xanthi Cavalla drama series Kostendil and Veria in addition to the conquests of many towns in Macedonia the Serbian Breakaway domains of prep and flash both submitted and became vassals of Murad as ottoman armies approached their Gates with the Ottoman victory at the Battle of Maritza and Muslim armies now freely marching around the Balkans the Bulgarian.

Byzantine and Bulgarian Empires

And Byzantine Empires both made strides to reach a repro shmo with Murad to keep their Realms intact in 1373 John V Paleo logos became a tributary to Edena in return for retaining the few Balkan Holdings he still ruled like the major coastal city of Thessalonica meanwhile the newly appointed Tsai even shishman of Bulgaria would also negotiate with Murad to become a tributary to widena in addition to also giving the hand of his sister kere Tamara to the ottoman sultan within only two years after his victory.

At the Maritza Sultan Mirage the first grandson to a lowly nomadic warlord who migrated to Anatolia had become the overlord of both the Byzantine and Bulgarian empires in addition to large swaths of the former Serbian Empire in our next episode on the early history of the Ottoman Empire we will explore further into the reign of Murad the first and his future military campaigns in the Balkans in addition to looking at the beginnings of the Ottoman expansion into the region of Anatolia.

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