Battle of Bapheus Rise of the Ottoman Empire

Battle of Bapheus Rise of the Ottoman Empire. On August 26, 1071 CE, the Byzantine army suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the great Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan in the field of Malazgerd. The Byzantines suffered a loss of life and property due to this defeat, but their biggest loss was the Turkish Muslims in Anatolia. This proved to be an entry from which they could never regain it.

Before this, there was no Muslim rule in Anatolia, and no Muslim empire succeeded in driving the Byzantines out of Anatolia. After the Seljuks conquered Anatolia, the Muslim Turk tribes started settling in Anatolia and the Turks made Anatolia their center and recognized it as their true home. Being limited to the Anatolian region, known as Seljuk Rome, both the Seljuk Empire and the Byzantine Empire in Anatolia wanted complete control over these areas, so they were always engaged in small and large battles.

The Seljuk Sultan Ghiyasuddin

The Byzantines built numerous forts in their border areas to avoid the Turkish Muslims in Anatolia. who protected them from the Turks in case of attack. Some tribes of Turkic Muslims also had borders with the Byzantine Empire. They too were constantly under threat of attack from the Byzantines. Therefore, these Turkish tribes also used to raid Byzantine areas from time to time.

Due to being at the Battle of Bapheus for a long time, these tribes had acquired excellent fighting skills. And petty wars had become the norm of their life. On June twelve hundred and forty-three AD, the Seljuk Sultan Ghiyasuddin Khusrau was decisively defeated by the Mongol army. Due to this, the Seljuk Empire in Anatolia lost its glory and they accepted the obedience of the Mongols. In addition, the Mongol armies used to attack the Turkic tribes in Anatolia and looted the trade caravans, which worried the Turks of Anatolia a lot. No one had the courage.

Death of Ertugrul

After the defeat by the Mongols, the Mongols would have made the prince of their choice the sultan in Anatolia, who remained loyal to them and there was no danger of any rebellion in Anatolia, let alone the Turkic tribes in Anatolia. There was a threat of attack from the Byzantine forts and on the other hand, the Mongol armies kept coming and attacking them. Among the same tribes, there was also a Qai tribe of the Aghuz Turks who fought for themselves with their chieftain during the reign of Sultan Alauddin Seljuqi.

They had come to Anatolia from Khorasan in search of plains. Sultan Alauddin Seljuqi chose Ertugrul, the chief of Qai, as the chief of the border tribes, after continuous success in the Battle of Bapheus against the Byzantines. Apart from this, he also provided them with a suitable place to stay. After the death of Ertugrul, his son Usman Ghazi became the chief of his tribe. Osman Ghazi quickly became popular with his army and the Turkic tribes due to his excellent fighting skills and his heroic deeds.

Yeni city

Osman Ghazi wanted to unite the Turkish Muslims in Anatolia under one flag. And that is because there was a tradition among the Turks that Turks could live without food. Can’t live without a state, that’s why Osman Ghazi started gathering Turkish Muslims to fight the Byzantines and Mongols. By the end of the 13th century AD, Osman Ghazi had captured many areas and forts. made Sogut its center before the rest of its forts, Anagol, Beljak, and Yeni cities are notable, which were conquered by Osman Ghazi from the Byzantine army by showing great courage and bravery.

Yeni city was a big city that was commercial After conquering Yeni city, Osman Ghazi made it his first capital, and seeing the weak foothold of the Seljuks in Anatolia in 1299 AD, Osman Ghazi started an independent state. Osman Ghazi had conquered many Byzantine forts and had small skirmishes with the Mongols, but so far Osman had not faced any large army that defeated him and proved himself a leader in front of the rest of the tribes. could or could convince other tribes to obey him.

History of Sultan Osman Ghazi

At the beginning of the fourteenth century AD, several tribes of the Turks had established independent governments, including the Ottomans, while the rest of the tribes were Krasi, Kurmian, Teke, and Adin. Such tribes were included All the tribes were always ahead of each other in uniting all the tribes of the Turks or conquering the Byzantine territories. Osman Ghazi was conquering one Byzantine territory after another and now he had a government instead of a tribe under his jurisdiction.

Which included many castles and many Turkish tribes, now Osman Ghazi had become so popular among the Turks that the Turks were seeing him as their Messiah and the Byzantines as a threat to them. The Byzantine Empire was suffering from many administrative and financial problems at that time. Of which Usman Ghazi took full advantage. The Byzantine emperor Andronicus was also very worried about the growing influence of Usman Ghazi.

The Great Ottoman Empire

He considered an influential chief like Usman to be a great threat to his territories. The main reason for the differences between the Turks and the Byzantines was the control of the natural reserves and the control of trade routes. which could stabilize their governments, but the religious differences also forced the two armies to warm against each other, so both the Turks and the Byzantines wanted to eliminate each other when the Byzantine emperor learned that Osman Ghazi wanted to capture a very valuable city, so he sent a large army to stop Osman.

Mozilla was doing this while the governors of the nearby Byzantine forts were also with the army, which totaled 8,000. It was going to be a big war of the Ottomans against the Byzantines, so Osman Ghazi included other tribes with him. On 127 July 1322 AD, the two armies faced each other in the field of Bafius, the Byzantine army consisted of mostly infantry and very little cavalry, while the Ottomans had mostly cavalry and very little infantry.

Battle of Bapheus

Before the arrival of the Byzantine army, Osman Ghazi had hidden most of his cavalry in the surrounding forests. When the Battle of Bapheus began, Osman Ghazi ordered his troops to attack the Byzantine army. Seeing the advancing Byzantine forces, Osman Ghazi ordered his army to retreat further, causing the Byzantine army to pursue the Turks. When the Ottomans were too far away from their center, Osman Ghazi ordered his ambushed Turkish cavalry to attack.

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Bravely watching, the Byzantine army piled up on the battlefield. The soldiers of the Byzantine army who had sworn to destroy the Ottomans were either killed on the battlefield or taken as prisoners of war. The Byzantines suffered a crushing defeat and Usman Ghazi was victorious. This victory proved to be very useful for the Ottomans. After this victory, Osman Ghazi became very popular among the Turks and many Turkic tribes came under the wing of Osman Ghazi.

After this victory of Usman Ghazi, most Turkic tribes preferred to fight for freedom instead of living a life of slavery. and promised to support Osman Ghazi against the Byzantines and Mongols. After this battle, the Byzantine Empire weakened in the Bithynian plains. In the next few years Osman Ghazi and after him, his son Orhan Ghazi drove the Byzantines out of Anatolia.

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