Alexander the Great: King of Macedonia

Alexander the Great: King of Macedonia. He the Great was born in Pella Macedonia the capital of ancient Greece because the Greeks used a different calendar than we do we can’t say for certainty when exactly he was born most historians believe that he was born in July the 20th 356 BCE the son of the king of Macedon Philip the seconds and the principal one of his seven wives Olympius of Epirus as the son of the king Alexander.

He was raised by a nurse he had private tutors with the first one being a relative by the name of Leonidas this man was a strict teacher who demanded a high level of academic rigor of the young prince Leonid a schooled Alexander in such subjects as maths reading in languages at around the age of 7 Alexander started instruction under one of his father’s generals a man by the name of the Lysimachus of arcane eh his job was to teach the boy to behave like a noble.

History Battles

He was taught to play the lyre as well as to write and to hunt bison Marcus also gave him instruction in fighting when he was 10 years old Alexander’s father was presented with a horse for sale by a trader but the horse was wild and no one could mount it Philip was about to dismiss this trader when young Alexander stepped forward and said that he was able to tame the animal the boy set himself to breaking the animal and becoming its master this was a dangerous task even for a grown man.

But young Alexander showed impressive determination and perseverance to conquer this horse his father the king was so proud of his son that even gave way to tears he told his son my boy you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions Macedon is too small for you after saying this he purchased the horse for him he named the horse Bucephalus which means ox head he rode the horse over most of his career and he carried it with him into many battles.

Alexander’s Army

When Mr fellows died of old age 30 Alexander named a city after him when he was 13 Alexander’s education was taken to a new level when Philip employed the greatest philosopher of the day Aristotle to tutor his son the daily lessons were held at the temple of nymphs at me a sir alexander lived there with other royal children in a sort of very privileged version of a morning school some of the teenagers that Alexander associated with at that time would later become his generals Aristotle provides.

Instruction in religion morals philosophy art and logic in appreciation for the education that he was providing for his son the king rebuilt Aristotle’s home in the town of Steggy which had previously been destroyed by the same king he also purchased every slave in the town and freed them when he reached the age of 16. He was handed a huge responsibility his father had just declared war on Byzantium and he was about to lead his army into battle he left the capital city of Macedon under the control of Him.

Alexander the Great

It was a huge display of trust on behalf of the king that others soon took advantage of a group of European tribes known as the Thracian mady rose in rebellion under the impression that the kingdom was weakened under the teenage Prince but He was up to the challenge he sent his army in and the Thracians were quickly driven out of their territory he had the area repopulated with greeks and renamed it Alexandra Palace.

When King Philip returned from battle he was extremely impressed with the way that his son had dealt with the Thracian revolt he gave Alexander his small army and the drop of stomping out any minor revolves that cropped up throughout the empire over the next three years Alexander joined his father on several military campaigns to dominate the Greek States on one occasion it was claimed that He saved his father’s life during a campaign against the Greek state of paranthas.

Hardships of Alexander

They defeated the cities of Olay Tia and Anfisa then they came up against the united armies of Athens and Thebes they always met during an epic battle near Kara near Envy OSHA Philip took the right wing of the army and put the left wing under His with Macedonia’s top generals having to answer to him for Thebes and Athenians were defeated giving Philip control of the majority of the Greek states he then said about uniting them into a Hellenic alliance having stamped.

With his dominance in a largely united Greece Philip set his sights on conquering Persia this time he left his son in control of a hugely expanded empire when he returned Philip added an extra wife to his household her name was Cleopatra Eurydice this marriage but His position as heir to the throne in danger Cleopatra was a full Macedonian while Alexander was only half Macedonian this meant that if Cleopatra had a son this one would supersede Alexandra in the line of succession.

King of Macedonia

During the wedding feast Attalus the uncle of Cleopatra who was one of Philips’s top generals was heard to drunkenly request the gods that the king and his new bride should quickly produce a son Alexander heard the plea and was not happy he went up to the general and threw a cup at his head and said you villain what am I then a bastard he felt abandoned by his father after the wedding he and his mother left Macedon.

He headed for Paris where their mother’s brother King Alexander the First resided leaving his mother there he continued to Sir Illyria in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula he was welcomed as a visiting dignitary by the Illyrian King back in Macedon the king was saddened by his son’s departure he sent a messenger to persuade Alex to return the reality was that Philip had never intended to displace Alexander as heir however shortly after Alexander’s return to Macedon.

Cleopatra of Macedon

There was more tension between the two Phillip arranged for his younger brother Ross accord Philip to marry him trouble-making friends and persuaded him that the king was again trying to cut him off from inheriting the throne however when for the part of the rumors he angrily banished the troublemakers in October of 336 BC the Macedonian raw court was in eggie for the wedding of Alexander the first of Epirus and his sister Cleopatra of Macedon Philip was assassinated by one of his bodyguards as he entered into the town’s theatres the reasons for the assassination are unclear.

But the results were very clear twenty-year-old. was now king of Macedonia Alexander was shaken by his father’s murder he knew that the plotters were intent on stealing the throne out from under him if he didn’t take decisive action he too would see debt he began by having his cousin M enters the fourth put to death along with a pair of Macedonian princes from lie senators he also ordered the execution of Attalus.

Her Struggle’s

The uncle of his stepmother Cleopatra his mother saw danger in the form of Cleopatra the woman who had married Philip a few years earlier she arranged for Cleopatra the daughter she’d had with Philip to be killed she also poisoned others leaving some of them mentally and physically disabled for life Alexander was furious at his mother poisoning his half-sister who he didn’t consider to be a threat to him.

When the news that the stable dominant rule of Philip had been replaced by his 20-year-old son several states were emboldened to rise in revolt recently conquered states including Athens and Thessaloniki attempted to reassert their independence despite his advisers urging a diplomatic response Alexander was determined to stamp his dominance on the rebellious States he led a force of 3,000 soldiers to sort things out in many cases the uncooperative state’s resistance evaporated.

Macedonian Kingdom

At the sight of Alexandra at the head of his army, those who didn’t were put down very swiftly he rode through the various states that his father had United. he was heaped with praise his swift action had cemented his power and provided a seamless transition from his father’s rule to his having put down a series of revolts. he wanted to ensure that there were no further uprisings in his second year as king he took his army east.

And defeated the Thracian people who had rebelled against him four years ago he also conquered the tribal tribes by now Alexander’s Macedonian Kingdom had become so large that if he went north to put down a rebellion people in the South would rise then when he went south those in the north would rebel again.

Persian Empire

He went directly to Thebes the only southern state that had dared to rebel against him. he was keen to make an example of them the city was destroyed he then created a series of smaller cities that were populated with people from other areas this assault had finally brought all of Greece under Alexander’s Dominion he now set out to conquer Asia to keep the home kingdom under control he but a general by the name of Antipater in charge with a sizeable army.

In 334 BCE he marched a forty-thousand-strong army out of Macedonia he was focused on taking possession of the entire Persian Empire which he considered to be a personal gift from the gods, unlike his father. he was never really interested in achieving diplomatic negotiations he was all about taking what he wanted by a force of arms the first resistance that the Macedonian army found as they swept into Persia was that the Battle of Granicus River this river was a formidable obstacle.

Memnon of Rhodes

The Greek army would have to cross the Persians under the Memnon of Rhodes and position themselves around the river to await the arrival of the enemy their strength was a little over half of that of the Greeks Alexander led his army into a direct frontal attack using a classic wedge-shaped assault they drove into the middle of the Persian line in the melee that followed it was reported that he personally killed several Persians.

He was almost felled with an axe blow but he was able to recover and save himself from the superior numbers of the Greeks combined with their use of the Lance to counter the javelin attacks of the Persians eventually won the day the Persians they defeated and chased from the field total Persian casualties were around 4,000 with his army had lost a tenth of that number there had been about 18,000 Greek mercenaries who had fought for the Persians in this battle they were captured by the Greek army.

The Persian Navy

He considered these men to be traitors to their country and deserving of no mercy yet half of them were executed and the rest taken as slaves following this victory, he took possession of Sardis the provincial capital of the kingdom of Lydia he then traveled down the Ionian coast most towns welcomed him as a conqueror and he duly declared that they were free of their Persian overlords and able to rule themselves as autonomous states.

As he moved down the coast the Persian Navy was constantly trying to engage Alexander in battle however he resisted preferring to fight on the land new things south he came to Halicarnassus where he engaged in his first full-scale siege operation the Persian fleet had sails to the port of Halicarnassus where it set up a base before Alexander’s arrival the Queen of Halicarnassus a Durov carrier had been driven from the city and replaced by a satrap named.

Greek Army

On to Beatty’s Aida had set herself up in the fortress of Olinda when Alexander rode in she surrendered the fort to him the defenders of the city of Halleck’s ass now set up to defend the city still Alexander’s army managed to break through the city walls how that they were driven back by the catapults from within the city a renewed asalto became this peril and stormed through a second time Memnon of Rhodes.

Who was in defense of the city having evaded capture at Granicus River set the city on fire before retreating the Persian fleet they also withdrew Alexander formally returned the city to Queen ADA in return she adopted him as a son, therefore, making sure that the city would pass to him on her death so look you might not be out there at conquering the worlds on his conquest Alexander arrived at the Phrygian capital of gordium they was here according to Greek legend an incredibly complicated rope.

The Empire of Persia

As the Gordian knot it was said that whoever could undo the knot would become ruler of Asia Alexander is said to have examined the knot closely than having no idea how to undo it he pulled out his sword and cut the rib in half with a single stroke we don’t know whether the story is true but you know it makes very good tale continuing south Alexander’s army encountered for the first time a more formidable army than his own it was under the leadership of Darius the third king of our community Empire of Persia.

Despite being outnumbered Alexander’s tactical skill bravery and leading from the front won the day Darius who was completely overwhelmed by this loss took to his heels before leaving his army a great treasure and all this kingdom Alexander claimed all with the absolute dominance of Alexander’s Greek army over the Persians bordering nations began to panic the all-conquering warrior king had developed an aura of invincibility.

Alexander’s Campaign

Many nations simply acceded to him as he entered their territory by 332 he had taken Syria and the coastal advance he then set about taking Tyre which was a coastal island base sitting about a mile out in the Mediterranean Sea conquering the island would be a great challenge to Alexander with the combination of the sea and higher walls that surrounded the islands leaving him with very few options for seven months Alexander blockaded the islands preventing either entry or exit.

He then had his army build a causeway out of rocks to allow them to get to the city walls when the city walls were eventually breached Alexander was so angry with the extended Tyrian holed out of it according to contemporary historian Arian of Nike media he ordered the massacre of up to eight thousand citizens following the taking of Tyre most of the cities on Alexander’s campaign route surrendered without putting up any resistance the only one city that stood firm.

Egypt Gaza

He wound his way to Egypt Gaza as the city sent it off a hill it looked as if Alexander was in for another protracted siege yet this was one siege that sort of looked like an impossibility the walls were according to Alexander’s engineers too high and too thick to be penetrated for Alexander though this was just the source of challenge that got his juices flowing he became even more determined to conquer the city.

He was convinced that destiny was gonna find a way for him the Greek army made three desperate attempts to breach the walls eventually on the final day they made that breakthrough but the cost was terrific with thousands of men falling to the missiles of the enemy Alexander himself suffered a serious shoulder wound once the city was taken severe punishment was exact upon the inhabitants with the men being slaughtered in the women.

The Great Temple of Solomon

And children being sold into slavery when the all-conquering Greek army approached the holy Jewish City of Jerusalem the Jews opened the gates and welcomed him into their midst it was reported that Alexander was taken into the Great Temple of Solomon and shown a prophetic text from the Book of Daniel that referred to him as a mighty king who would conquer the land Alexander left Jerusalem in peace and headed south to lay claim to Egypt in that land he was welcomed as a liberator the people proclaimed.

And gave him reverence on the same level as though in fair he founded the city of Alexandria which would become the major trading center in future times leaving Egypt Alexander traveled back north as he set his sights on taking in Babylon this is the Persian capital where King Darius had positioned himself Alexander marched with forty-seven thousand men but Darius had amassed a massive army. Alexander placed his light troops up front to negate the effects of the chariots with missiles directed.

Persian City of Persepolis

At their horses, those chariots that made it to the Greek line were allowed to pass harmlessly through where they were surrounded and captured Darius himself was in a size armed chariot but when his charioteer was felled by a javelin he jumped from the chariot mounted a horse and fled seeing this many of his men they followed suit panic ensued and the battle was over following the conquest of Babylon Alexander moved on to Susur.

Then to the Persian city of Persepolis, he determined to hunt down and kill Darius the disgraced Persian king to prevent any further reprisals he finally found Darius but he’d already been killed by one of his most trusted men Bursar had killed him and now claimed the throne for himself Alexander now set his sights on tracking down Bessus who had fled into Central Asia Alexander explored much of Asia he founds several cities naming each.

The King of Kings

In his honor eventually, Bessus was betrayed by his men and handed over for execution on his return to Persia Alexander was hailed as the King of Kings he began to adopt Persian habits including dressing in Persian clothing and following Persian customs this was troubling to many Greeks including some of his generals by now Alexander had been away from Macedon for many years.

He had left and Tippet ur is the military ruler of the city and he had effectively maintained the peace. However, Alexander obstinately requested troop reinforcements which made the defenses of the city weaker. but others didn’t these plans were furiously attacked by Alexander’s army complete villages were burned to the ground and people were killed with impunity the Greek army met their strongest resistance.

The King Porus

At the hands of King Porus in the Punjab region, the Indian forces were defeated in battle but Alexander was so impressed with the tactics and bravery of pooris that he offered a co-rulership to him while Alexander would control the lands he would handle the day-to-day running of Punjab to poorest by now Alexander had conquered more territory.

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However, his army didn’t they simply had enough the soldiers revolted refusing to advance any further the generals sided with them and the appointing of Persian officers to command them in an attempt to win favor Alexander ensured the Macedonian troops were ruled over by Macedonian officers he also held a huge banquet for his men to celebrate the years of victory after returning to Persia Alexander established himself in the great Palace of Nebuchadnezzar.

Death of Alexander

He planned further campaigns of conquest into Arabia but these would never come to pass Alexander died suddenly on June the 10th or 11th 332 BCE the cause of death is unclear with there being two main theories and both of these theories involve the excessive use of alcohol in one accounts he develops a fever after a 24-hour drinking binge.

And the other he became sick after drinking a bowl of unmixed wine of course this also been talk of poisoning the death of the King of Kings at the height of his power was a huge shot to the entire world people could not believe that such a strong dynamic and heroic individual could be struck down without warning Alexander’s body was placed in a gold sarcophagus.

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